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Lessons on the Basic Theories of Scientific Method
#1 Scientific Method Is the Best of All Knowledge Methods
#2 Value of Method
#3 The Scientific Method Is a General Method
#4 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method
#5 Practical Application of the Scientific Method
Steps or Stages of the Scientific Method – two pages on each
1. Curious Observation
2. Is There a Problem?
3. Goals & Planning
4. Search, Explore, & Gather the Evidence
5. Generate Creative & Logical Alternative Solutions
6. Evaluate the Evidence
7. Make the Educated Guess (Hypothesis)
8. Challenge the Hypothesis
9. Reach a Conclusion
10. Suspend Judgment
12. Creative, Non-Logical, Logical & Technical Methods
13. Procedural Principals & Theories
14. Attributes & Thinking Skills
Scientific Method History
Who Invented the Scientific Method? Who Discovered the Scientific Method?
No one person can be credited as the inventor of the scientific method. It was really not “invented” but recognized and developed as the natural method of obtaining reliable knowledge.
History of the Scientific Method
Many authors trace the beginning of the scientific method and experimenting back to ancient artisans, Greeks, Arabs, Spaniards, and others.
Aristotle Scientific Method
Aristotle (384–322 BCE) was one of history’s noted original thinkers, first for devising methods for trying to arrive at reliable knowledge based on observation.
Bacon Scientific Method – Who Came up with the Scientific Method?
Roger Bacon (1214–1294), drawing on the writings of Muslim scientists, described a repeating cycle of observation, hypothesis, experimentation, and verification.
Galileo Scientific Method – Father of the Scientific Method
In our modern culture, Galileo (1564–1642) is generally credited with being the father of the scientific method. The Encyclopedia Britannica (1970) says:
“Even while Bacon was philosophizing, the true method was being practiced by Galileo, who, with a combination of observation, hypothesis, mathematical deduction and confirmatory experiment founded the science of dynamics.
Francis Bacon Scientific Method
Bacon is famous for explaining his method in Novum Organum, published in 1622. He is very widely mentioned in the literature for his contribution to the scientific method.
Descartes Scientific Method
Descartes’ 1637 treatise Discourse on Method is well-known and was also a contribution to the development of the scientific method.
Originally the scientific method was called the experimental method and the method of science. When the word scientific was devised in the 19th century, the most widespread term applied to the method became the scientific method or scientific method.
Development of the Scientific Method
Following the above developers of the scientific method, many philosophers, scientists, psychologists, and others have contributed to the development of a theory of the scientific method as we know it today. Some of these are:
Modern Development of the Scientific Method of Historical Importance
For several centuries, authors have offered thousands of model formulas for
the scientific method. Many are good, but they usually have been condensed.
Through a quirk of fate, no one had ever studied most of them. I started to
do this in 1989, and it wasn’t until 1997 that I finally arrived at what is
the new scientific method model formula (SM-14).
Scientific Method Worksheet for the New Scientific Method Model Formula
A two-page worksheet for SM-14 is provided near the end of this booklet and as a PDF file. It is a universal form for all domains. This guide or worksheet should be used whenever you are applying the scientific method to a problem or decision. In this age of technology growth and ever increasing complexity, a reminder worksheet can keep you on the right course.