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STEP OR STAGE #3 of the Scientific Method
GOALS & PLANNING
Using the Scientific Method Requires
GOALS - End results you want to achieve
in solving a problem:
- Goals must be realistic, flexible, and subject to change.
- Put goals in writing. This helps analyze priorities and avoid carelessness.
- Consider methods, processes, technologies, systems, strategies, and formulas needed.
- Set target dates for stages and completion.
- Learn to process information efficiently.
In considering goals, think about:
|Real purpose involved
||Long & short term goals
||Criteria to use
|Values to use
||Your basic needs
||Revising as required
|Perfection not always needed
||Where goal is leading
||Measurability / specific end
Using the Scientific Method Requires
PLANNING - How to reach your goals.
Always Think & Plan Ahead
- Planning speeds solutions and avoids wasted time and effort. Put plans in writing.
- Develop a plan to use today's huge computer databases of information.
- Abstract and Outline: theories, concepts and basic principles involved in the problem.
- Consider breaking down into sub-problems; each may require a plan.
- Plan must be flexible. When working on complex, ill-structured problems, things will change frequently. Thus, don't start with too detailed a plan.
- Plan for overall solution. Preliminary program for each step or stage of SM-14.
- At start of work on each Step or Stage, prepare revised program for this Step or Stage.
- Compile tentative solutions. Know the scope of areas you are going to search.
- Experiment and test. Watch for methods to test tentative solutions.
- Similar problems may have been solved before. Review records to benefit from experiences.
- Use Intuition and Insight to save time and aid direction.
- Build your team and involve its members in goals and planning.
- When solving ill-structured problems tolerate ambiguities.
- Plan how to control constants and variables.
A few other things to consider in your planning and using the Scientific Method:
|Keep log book
||Time, budget, priorities
||Approvals and decisions of others
||"Anything goes" theory
||Build up your library and files
|Trial and error
||Impact on society
||Utilize sketches and diagrams
|| Criteria to meet or establish
|| Resources available
||Apply innovations and creativity
|Watch for clues
||Supplies, facilities, instruments
|Thinking out loud
||List factors contributing to solution
||Assignment of responsibilities
| Research designs
||Start with easiest sub-problems
||Laws, licenses, legalities, patent search
Problem-based Learning -
Great Goal, But Poor Planning
There is a growing movement to teach law, medicine, engineering, business and other subjects by Problem-based Learning. In many instances those sponsoring this type of learning fail to:
- Include any formula for the steps or stages and ingredients of the scientific method, which is the master method of problem solving.
- Use inadequate formulas - such as offering one that is too short.
This situation is an example of the excellent goal of teaching problem solving, but poor planning and analysis of what is needed to accomplish the goal.
If you do not teach any formula when using problem-based learning programs, you fail to a great extent getting transfer of learning. Centuries of use of the scientific method have shown there are basic stages to reliable problem solving. SM-14 is a well-researched formula. After reviewing hundreds of other formulas, I have found SM-14 to be the best suited for use of the Scientific Method in problem solving.
SM-14 becomes a strategy that guides you in solving complex, ill-structured, real-world problems. It has evolved over the centuries since Galileo's time. Another basic principle is that one learns to become an expert by solving a large number of problems, following a formula such as SM-14.